How does spruce budworm damage trees?

Spruce budworm larvae consume the new buds, current-year foliage, and sometimes older needles of balsam fir and spruce trees: often for several years. The defoliation causes growth loss (up to...

How does a spruce budworm outbreak start?

It is unknown how outbreaks start. Some researchers have suggested that an excess of over mature host trees in a given area can contribute to the rapid rise of spruce...

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